The immune response

Macrophages (immune cells belonging to the white blood cells) play an essential role in the fight against foreign invaders such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, as well as in the elimination of dead tissues, tumor cells and heavy metal complexes. They recognize foreign antigens, inform other immunocompetent cells by biochemical mediators (cytokines, interleukins, interferons) about the invaders and coordinate the defense reactions of our immune system.
 
Our raw material consists basically of (13),(16)--D-glucan - is known for its ability to activate macrophages and put them on alert. This activated condition enables the macrophage to act quickly and effectively against foreign invaders. Hence the immune response is highly effective and infections can be stopped in an early stage.
 

The immune response


The macrophage recognizes the virus as a foreign body, surrounds and consumes it.
 

The macrophage splits up the virus and displays pieces of it (antigens) on its surface.
 

Helper T cells (white blood cells) recognize the antigen and bind to the macrophage.
Both secrete jointly regulative signal molecules (interleukins).
 

The macrophage and helper T cells bolster the production of chemical substances such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-2 and gamma interferon (IFN), that take over intercellular communication.
 

The mediator substance IL-2 (interleukin-2) stimulates the increased production of helper T and killer T cells.
The helper T cells promote the proliferation of B cells and their antigen production.
 

The killer T cell looks for, recognizes and destroys virus-infected cells before they can spread a disease.
The natural killer cell (NK cell) destroys spontaneously virus-infected cells and some tumor cells independent from other tumor cells and tumor detecting mechanisms.
 

The antibody binds to the antigen on the surface of the virus and initiates its destruction through the macrophage.
This process is supported by the complement system.
 

When the infection is brought under control, suppressor T cells turn off the T and B cells.
Memory cells remain behind to trigger a quick immune response if the same virus attacks again.
 
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